Does the cause related market really predict the consumer purchase intention?
Keywords:Causal Marketing, Brand Loyalty, Consumer perception and attitude, Consumer purchase intention
Purpose: The current study intents to evaluate how to cause promotion strategy shapes customer viewpoint, perception, and purchasing behavior. To achieve the research objectives of the present study considered the integrated model based on the theory of planned behavior. The integrated model evaluates the role of causal marketing towards the consumer purchase intention. In addition to that the present study proposed that the consumer perception and attitude, and brand loyalty significantly mediate the association between causal marketing and consumer purchase intention.
Design and Methodology: The present study used the non-probability sampling technique. The association among the latent constructs was evaluated using the structural equation modeling technique. The findings of the current study revealed a link between causal marketing and purchasing behavior and attitude. Consumers are more inclined to support corporations that participate in cause campaigns and acquire a favorable view of the firm and its products. The study's main result is that while consumers may be more favorable to causal Marketing, the trademark must be regarded to have a usual link with the cause. Furthermore, causal marketing has the potential to elicit a more favorable shift in brand attitude than sales promotion. This shift in attitude is influenced by the consumer's perception of the approach itself.
Findings: Finding of present study affirms that brand loyalty and consumer perception, and attitude significantly and positively linked with the consumer purchase intentions. Furthermore, the findings affirm that brand loyalty and consumer perception, and attitude significantly and positively mediate the association between the causal marketing and consumer purchase intention.
Implications: Causal Marketing may also elicit a favorable shift in brand attitude more successfully than a promotional strategy. This shift in mindset is dependent on the consumer's reaction to the approach itself.
Keywords: Causal Marketing, Brand Loyalty, Consumer perception and attitude, Consumer purchase intention.
Abdullah, Z., et al. (2021). "Cause-related marketing purchase decision: do religiosity and attitudes matter?" 14(5): 684-704.
Abbas Naqvi, M. H., Jiang, Y., Miao, M., & Naqvi, M. H. (2020). The effect of social influence, trust, and entertainment value on social media use: Evidence from Pakistan. Cogent Business & Management, 7(1), 1723825.
Ace, C. (2001), Successful Marketing Communication, Oxford: Chartered Institute Marketing.
Adkins, S. (1999). The wider benefits of backing a good cause. PSA Bibliography. Available at: [cited 10 September 2009].
Adkins, S. (2000). Cause related marketing: who cares wins. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Alaviitala, M. (2000), Feedback Impacting Added Value of Products in Cause marketing. Proposal Abstract for the oikos Ph.D. Summer Academy in St. Gallen. Available at: [cited 5 November 2009].
Atilgan, E., Aksoy, S. and Akinci, S.M. (2005), “Determinants of the brand equity A verification approach in the beverage industry in Turkey”, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 237-248.
American Marketing Association (2007). AMA: Social-Network Shopping, Cause marketing Top Holiday Trends [online] Marketing Charts. Available at: [cited 23 November 2009].
Andrews, M., Luo, X., Fang, Z. and Aspara, J. (2014), “Cause marketing effectiveness and the moderating role of price discounts”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 78 No. 6, pp. 120-142
Arlow, P., (1991). Personal characteristics in college students’ evaluation of business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 10, pp.63-9.
Baar, A., (2009). Cause marketing expected to show growth. C.a.k.+ associates, Available at:< http://www.cakplus.com/blog/?p=109 > [cited 07 September 2009].
Barone, M., Norman, A., and Miyazaki, A. (2007). Consumer response to retailer use of cause marketing: Is more fit better? Journal of Retailing, Vol. 83, pp. 437-445.
Barone, M.J., Miyazaki, A.D., and Taylor, K.A. (2000), “The influence of cause-related marketing on consumer choice: does one good turn deserve another?”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 248-26.
Moosmayer, D. C., & Fuljahn, A. (2010). Consumer perceptions of cause marketing campaigns. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27(6), 543-549.
Pracejus, J. W., & Olsen, G. D. (2004). The role of brand/cause fit in the effectiveness of cause marketing campaigns. Journal of Business Research, 57(6), 635-640.
Barone, M.J., Miyazaki, A.D., and Taylor, K.A. (2000). The influence of cause marketing consumer choice: Does one good turn deserve another? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), pp.248-262.
Basil, D.Z. and Herr, P.M. (2003). Dangerous donations? The effects of cause marketing on charity attitude. Journal of Non-profit and Public Sector Marketing, 11(1), pp. 59-76.
Belch, G.E. and Belch, M.A. (1999), Advertising and Promotion – An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Berger, I. and Alwitt, L. (1996) Attitude Conviction: a self-reflective measure of attitude strength. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(3), 555-572.
Berglind, M. and Nakata, C. (2005). Cause marketing: More buck than bang? Journal of Business Horizons, 48, 443-453.
Berner, R., Khermouch, G. and Pascual, A. (2001), Retail reckoning, Business Week Online, www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/01_50/ b3761089.ht
Burnett, J. & Wood, V. (1988). A proposed model of the donation decision process. In Hirschman, E.C. (Ed.), Research in Consumer Behavior, Greenwich, CT: Jal Press, Inc., 1-47.
Bhattacharya, C.B. and Sen, S. (2003). Consumer-Company Identification: A Framework for Understanding Consumers' Relationships with Companies. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), pp. 76-88.
Bigné-Alcañiz, E., Currás-Pérez, R., and Sánchez-García I. (2009). Brand credibility in cause marketing: the moderating role of consumer values. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(6), pp. 437-447.
Bloom, P.N., Hoeffler, S., Lane Keller, K. and Basurto Meza C.E. (2006). How Social-Cause Marketing Affects Consumer Perceptions. [Online] Available at: [cited 6 October 2009].
Bloom, P. N., Hussein, P. Y., &Szykman, L. R. (2018). The benefits of corporate social marketing initiatives. In Social Marketing (pp. 313-331). Psychology Press.
Blythe, J. (2008). Consumer Behaviour, London: Thomson Learning. Brace, N., Kemp, R., and Snelgar R. (2003). SPSS for Psychologists, 2nd ed, New York: Plagrave Macmillan.
Broberg, M. P., (1996). Corporate Social Responsibility in the European Communities - the Scandinavian Viewpoint, Journal of Business Ethics, 15 (6), pp. 615-625.
Bronn, P. and Vrioni, A. (2001). Corporate social responsibility and cause marketing: an overview. International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 20, pp. 207-222.
Broderick, A., Jogi, A., & Garry, T. (2003). Tickled pink: the personal meaning of cause-related marketing for customers. Journal of Marketing Management, 19(5), 583-610.
Bryck, S.A. (2003). Generation Y: is their future in your future? LIMRA's Market Facts Quarterly, 22(1), pp. 84-89.
Buttle, F., Bok, B.W. and Bok, B.K. (1996). Hotel marketing strategy and the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(3), pp. 5-10.
Boenigk, S. and Schuchardt, V. (2013), “Cause‐related marketing campaigns with luxury firms: an experimental study of campaign characteristics, attitudes, and donations”, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 101-121
Beatty, S.E., Kahle, L.R., Utsey, M., & Keown, C. (1993). Gift giving behaviors in the United States and Japan: A personal values perspective. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 6(1), 49-66
Berglind, M., & Nakata, C. (2005). Cause marketing: More buck than bang? Business Horizons, 48(5), 443-453.
Brønn, P. S., & Vrioni, A. B. (2001). Corporate social responsibility and cause marketing: an overview. International Journal of Advertising, 20(2), 207-222.
Chang, C. T. (2008). To donate or not to donate? Product characteristics and framing effects of cause‐related marketing on consumer purchase behavior. Psychology & Marketing, 25(12), 1089-1110.
Chaney, I. and Dolli, N. (2001). Cause marketing in New Zealand. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 6(2), pp.156-163.
Chattananon, A. (2008). Impacts of a Thai cause marketing program on corporate image. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 4(3), 348-363.
Chang, C. T., & Chu, X. Y. (2020). The give and take of cause-related marketing: purchasing cause-related products licenses consumer indulgence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48, 203-221.
Christofi, M., Vrontis, D., Leonidou, E., & Thrassou, A. (2020). Customer engagement through choice in cause-related marketing: A potential for global competitiveness. International Marketing Review, 37(4), 621-650.
Chaudhuri, A., and Holbrook, M.B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty.Journal of Marketing 65(2), 81-93.
Chéron, E., Kohlbacher, F. and Kusuma, K. (2012). The effects of brand-cause fit and campaign duration on consumer perception of cause-related marketing in Japan.Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(5), 357-368.
Chen, X. (2005). The moderating role of cultural traits in consumer reaction to CRM campaigns: a comparative study of Chinese and Canadians of European descent. [Online] University of Lethbridge. Available at: [cited 6 November 2009].
Christofi, M., Thrassou, A., Chebbi, H., Ahmed, Z. U., Grandhi, B., &Iaia, L. (2019). CRM campaigns with choice for enhanced business process performance: The collectivist customers’ collaborative role for positive word-of-mouth. Business Process Management Journal, 26(5), 1225-1239.
Chisnall, S. (2005). Marketing research, 7th ed, England: McGraw-Hill Education
Coren, S., Ward L.M. and Enns, J.T. (2004). Sensation and Perception. 6th ed. USA: Lehigh Press.
Cornwell, B., Coote, L. (2005). Corporate sponsorship of a cause: the role of identification in purchase intent. Journal of Business Research, 58(1), 268-276.
Cui, Y., Trent, E., Sullivan, PP., and Matiru, G. (2003). Cause marketing: How generation Y responds. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(6), 310-320.
Dawkins, J. (2004). Corporate responsibility: the communication challenge. Journal of Communication Management, 9(1), 108-119.
Dick, A. S. and Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), pp.99-113.
Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., and Sen, S., (2007), Reaping Relational Rewards from Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Competitive Positioning. Journal of Research in Marketing, 24(2), 224-241.
Dupree, J. (2000). Brand Spirit: How cause marketing builds brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(5), 455-466.
Ekelund, C. (2002). How to Govern Relationships and Established Commitments: a study of standardized products in mature industrial markets. Copenhagen: Forfattern.
Endacott, R.W. (2004). Consumers and CRM: a national and global perspective.Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(3), 183-189.
Fan, X., Deng, N., Qian, Y., & Dong, X. (2020). Factors affecting the effectiveness of cause-related marketing: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-22.
Fellman, M. (1999), Cause marketing takes a strategic turn. Marketing News, 6 Sep. p.5.
File, K.M. and Prince, R.A (1998). Cause marketing and corporate philanthropy in the privately held enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(14), pp. 1529-39.
Gupta, S. and Pirsch, J. (2006). The company-cause-customer fit decision in cause marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(6), 314-326.
Grewal, D., Roggeveen, A. L., Sisodia, R., &Nordfält, J. (2017). Enhancing customer engagement through consciousness. Journal of Retailing, 93(1), 55-64.
Galan Ladero, M.M., Galera Casquet, C. and Singh, J. (2015). Understanding factors influencing consumer attitudes toward cause-related marketing.International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 20(1), 52-70.
Hartmann, W., Nair, H. S., & Narayanan, S. (2011). Identifying causal marketing mix effects using a regression discontinuity design. Marketing Science, 30(6), 1079-1097.
Henerson, M., Morris, L. and Taylor Fitz-Gibbon, C. (1987). How to measure attitude, 2nd ed. SAGE Publications, Inc.
Hollensen, S. (2007). Global Marketing. England: Prentice Hall.
Hou, J., Du, L. and Li, J. (2008). Cause attributes influencing consumer's purchasing intention: empirical evidence from China. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(4), 363-380.
Huang, Y., Phau, I., Lin, C., et al. (2008). Allocentrism and consumer ethnocentrism: The effects of social identity on purchase intention. Social Behaviour and Personality, 36(8), 1097-1110.
Hyde, K. (2000). Recognizing deductive process in qualitative research. Qualitative Marketing Research: An International Journal, 3(2), 82-89.
Jones, J.P. (1998). How Advertising Works: the role of research. USA, Sage Publications Inc.
King, S. (2001). An All-Consuming cause of breast cancer, corporate philanthropy, and the market for generosity. Social Text 69, 19 (4), pp. 115- 143, by Duke University Press.
Koschate-Fischer, N., Stefan, I.V., and Hoyer, W.D. (2012). Willingness to pay for cause-related marketing: the impact of donation amount and moderating effects.Journal of Marketing Research, 49(6), 910-927.
Kinner, P.R., and Gray, C.D. (2004). SPSS 12 Made Simple, USA: Psychology Kotler, P. and Keller, K. (2009). Marketing management. 13th ed, London: Person Education ltd.
Kotler, P., Wong, V., Saunders, J. and Armstrong, G. (2005). Principles of Marketing. 4 th ed. Harlow: Person Education.
Kropp, F., Holden, S.J. and Lavack, A.M. (1999), “Cause‐related marketing and values in Australia”, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 69-80.
Kureshi, S., & Thomas, S. (2020). Testing the influence of message framing, donation magnitude, and product category in a cause-related marketing context. Journal of Marketing Communications, 26(3), 268-289.
Lafferty, B. (2007). The relevance fits in a cause-brand alliance when consumers evaluate corporate credibility. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60, pp. 447-453.
Luu, T. T. A., & Baker, J. R. (2021). Exploring consumers’ purchase intention of rPET bottle-based apparel in an emerging economy. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(1), 22.
Kim, J. E., & Johnson, K. K. (2013). The impact of moral emotions on cause marketing campaigns: A cross-cultural examination. Journal of business ethics, 112(1), 79-90.
Korzen, S., & Lassen, J. (2010). Meat in context. On the relation between perceptions and contexts. Appetite, 54, 274−28
Kuo, A., & Rice, D. H. (2015). The impact of perceptual congruence on the effectiveness of cause‐related marketing campaigns. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(1), 78-88.
Lafferty, B., Goldsmith, R., (2005). Cause-brand alliances: does the cause help the brand or does the brand help the cause? Journal of business research, Vol. 58, pp. 423-429.
Madahi, A. and Sukati, I. (2012) The Effect of External Factors on Purchase Intention amongst Young Generation in Malaysia. International Business Research; Vol. 5, No. 8; 2012
Maignan, I. and Ralston, D.A., (2002). Corporate social responsibility in Europe and the US: insights from businesses' self-presentations, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 33 (3).
Malhotra, N., and Birks, D., (2000). Marketing Research an Applied Approach, European ed. Pearson Education Limited 2000.
Marshall, C., and Rossman, G. (1999). Designing Qualitative Research, 3rd ed. SAGE Publications, Inc.
Meffert, H. and Holzberg, M. (2009). Cause marketing: Ein scheinheiliges Kooperationskonzept? Marketing Review St. Gallen, Vol. 2, pp. 47-53
Morton, L., (2002). Targeting Generation Y. Public Relations Quarterly, Vol. 47(2), pp. 46-47.
Majava, J., Isoherranen, V., &Kess, P. (2013). Business collaboration concepts and implications for companies. International Journal of Synergy and Research, 2(1-2)
Nah-Hong, LN. (2007), The Effect of Brand Image and Product Knowledge on Purchase Intention Moderated by Price Discount. J. Int. Manage. Stud., Vol 2
Naqvi, M. H. A., Jiang, Y., & Naqvi, M. (2020). Generating customer engagement in electronic-brand communities: a stimulus–organism–response perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
Naqvi, M. H., Guoyan, S., & Naqvi, M. H. A. (2021). Measuring the influence of web features in the online gamification environment: a multimediation approach. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2021.
Naqvi, M., Li, S., Jiang, Y., & Naqvi, M. H. A. (2019). The rise of social networking sites: an empirical investigation applying demographic differences and the technology acceptance model. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
Oliver, R.L. (1997), Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer, New York, NY: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Oliver, R.L. (1999), “Whence Consumer Loyalty?”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63 (4), pp.33–44
Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual. 3 rd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Robinson, S.R., Irmak, C. and Jayachandran, S. (2012), “Choice of cause in cause-related marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 76 No. 4, pp. 126-139
Rose, G.M., Shoham, A., Kahle, L.R., &Batra, R. (1994). Social values, conformity, and dress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 501-1519.
Ross III, J. K., Stutts, M. A., & Patterson, L. (1991). Tactical considerations for the effective use of cause marketing. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 7(2), 58-65.
Robinson, S. R., Irmak, C., & Jayachandran, S. (2012). Choice of cause in cause marketing. Journal of Marketing, 76(4), 126-139.
Santoro, G., Bresciani, S., Bertoldi, B., & Liu, Y. (2019). Cause-related marketing, brand loyalty and corporate social responsibility: A cross-country analysis of Italian and Japanese consumers. International Marketing Review, 37(4), 773-791.
Setiawan, B., Afiff, A. Z., & Heruwasto, I. (2020). Integrating the theory of planned behavior with norm activation in a pro-environmental context. Social Marketing Quarterly, 26(3), 244-258.
Shabbir, S., Kaufmann, H. R., Ahmad, I., & Qureshi, I. M. (2010). Cause marketing campaigns and consumer purchase intentions: The mediating role of brand awareness and corporate image. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6), 1229-1235.
Thomas, S., Kureshi, S., & Vatavwala, S. (2020). Cause-related marketing research (1988–2016): An academic review and classification. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 32(5), 488-516.
Till, B. D., & Nowak, L. I. (2000). Toward effective use of cause-related marketing alliances. The Journal of Product & Brand Management, 9(7), 472-484.
Tangari, A. H., Folse, J. A. G., Burton, S., & Kees, J. (2010). The moderating influence of consumers' temporal orientation on the framing of societal needs and corporate responses in cause marketing campaigns. Journal of Advertising, 39(2), 35-50.
Vyravene, R., &Rabbanee, F. K. (2016). Corporate Negative Publicity – the Role of Cause Related Marketing. Australasian Marketing Journal, 24(4), 322–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ausmj.2016.11.006
Wymer, W. and Samu, S. (2009). The influence of cause marketing associations on product and cause brand value.International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 14(1), 1-20.
Van den Brink, D., Odekerken-Schröder, G. and Pauwels, P. (2006), “The effect of strategic and tactical cause-related marketing on consumers’ brand loyalty”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(1), 15-25.
Vilela, A.M. and Nelson, M.R. (2016), “Testing the selectivity hypothesis in cause-related marketing among Generation Y: (When) does gender matter for short-and long-term persuasion?”, Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 18-35
Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A., Christofi, M., Shams, R., & Czinkota, M. R. (2020). Cause-related marketing in international business: what works and what does not?. International Marketing Review, 37(4), 593-601.
Youn, S. and Kim, H. (2008), “Antecedents of consumer attitudes toward cause-related marketing”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 123-137
Yushi, J., Naqvi, M. H. A., & Naqvi, M. H. (2018). Using social influence processes and psychological factors to measure pervasive adoption of social networking sites: Evidence from Pakistan. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 54(15), 3485-3499.